Egypt

Country: Egypt

Population: 94.7 million (2016 est.)[1]

Languages:[2] Arabic (official), English and French widely understood

Major religions:[3] Muslim 90%, Christian (predominantly Coptic Orthodox) 10%

 

Estimated FGC prevalence among women aged 15-49:

87%[4]

Based on DHS (Demographic and Health Survey) 2008 data the prevalence rate was 91%, suggesting a 4 % drop in rates of FGC in 7 years.

A breakdown of Egypt Health Issues Survey (EHIS) data from 2015 shows the following:

table-1

Type(s) practised:

The most widely practised forms are Type I and Type II, and are undertaken by both Muslims and Christians.[5]

Legal status:

FGC has been illegal in Egypt since 1996, but it continues to remain an issue.[6] In June 2008, the Egyptian Parliament adopted a law imposing a sentence of a maximum of two years and a fine of up to 5,000 LE ($308) as a penalty for performing FGC.  However, the ban was not total and permitted the procedure when it was deemed medically necessary, thereby creating, de facto, an important loophole. In January 2015, an appeals court convicted the doctor and the father of 13-year-old Sohair el-Batea, who died in 2013 while undergoing an illegal FGC procedure at a private clinic in Daqahliya governorate; they were the first individuals brought to trial since the 2008 law banned FGC.[7] In 2016, Egypt’s cabinet proposed an amendment to the law banning FGC which would classify it as a crime rather than a misdemeanour, and would increase the penalties.[8] In December 2016, the law came into force.[9]

 


[1] ‘Egypt’ (The World Factbook, CIA) <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html> accessed 8 November 2016

[2] ibid

[3] ibid

[4] ‘Egypt: Statistical profile on female genital mutilation/cutting’ (Unicef) <http://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/country_profiles/Egypt/FGMC_EGY.pdf> accessed 9 November 2016

[5] Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues, Egypt: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC) (Washington :U.S. Department of State 2001)< https://2001-2009.state.gov/g/wi/rls/rep/crfgm/10096.htm> accessed 9 November 2016

[6] ibid

[7] Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, EGYPT 2015 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT (Washington: U.S. Department of State 2015)  <http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253133.pdf> accessed 9 November 2016; Patrick Kingsley, ‘Egypt launches first prosecution for female genital mutilation after girl dies’ The Guardian (London, 14 March 2014 <http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/mar/14/egyptian-doctor-first-prosecution-fgm-female-genital-mutilation >access 11 November 2016

[8] Ruth Michaelson, ‘Egypt's tougher penalties for FGM will have little impact, say rights groups’ The Guardian (London, 1 September 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/sep/01/egypts-tougher-penalties-for-fgm-will-have-little-impact-say-rights-groups> accessed 11 November 2016

[9]AFP, ‘Egypt brings in tougher penalties against female genital mutilation’ (Daily Mail, 4 December 2016) <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3998866/Egypt-brings-tougher-penalties-against-female-genital-mutilation.html> accessed 5 December 2016

History of FGC in Egypt:[1]

FGC is believed to have originated in Ancient Egypt during the Pharaonic Era. Pharaonic circumcision is more commonly known as FGC Type III, and evidence of this has been found on female mummies, the earliest known cases in the world. It is believed that Pharaonic circumcision was undertaken for two reasons: I) the Egyptian gods had bisexual genitals, and subsequently had to have one type of their genitals circumcised to progress into manhood or womanhood, and II) to preserve female chastity. However, despite FGC allegedly originating in Egypt, Type III is rarely practised in Egypt. Moreover, the Egyptians believe FGC originated in Ethiopia, another factor in the origination debate.

FGC is a deeply entrenched in Egypt’s tradition, which is why it has been proven so hard to eradicate.

 


[1]‘What are the origins and reasons for FGM?’ (28 Too Many) <http://28toomany.org/blog/2013/feb/19/what-are-the-origins-and-reasons-for-fgm-blog-by-2/> accessed 11 November 2016

Current efforts to abandon FGC:

Egypt’s government has pledged to eliminate FGC by 2030. Data published by Unicef shows that rates of FGC are slowly falling, as of 2008, especially among young women. However, more than 90% of married Egyptian women have undergone FGC.

In summer 2016, discussions on increasing the penalties for performing FGC were initiated by the National Council for Population. The suggested amendments were presented to the People’s Assembly, the lower house of Egypt’s parliament, and came as a reaction to the death of a young girl, Mayar Mohamed Mousa, while undergoing FGC by a medical doctor in a private hospital in the Al-Suez governorate, which was later closed down by the authorities.[1] NPC’s proposed amendments included increasing the punishment for performing, or assisting in performing, FGC to a minimum of 2 years in prison and a maximum 3 years, with a minimum fine of 10,000 LE and a maximum of 50,000 LE. The amendments also included more serious penalties (minimum of 3 years and maximum of 15 years) in cases of permanent disability, and 25 years in case of death.[2]

In June, the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR) released a position paper suggesting legal means to activate laws criminalising FGC, in which it suggested several techniques to make the law more effective.[3] At the same time, workshops have been running jointly by local NGOs, the Ministry of Health and UNFPA, promoting religious, medical and humanitarian arguments against FGC.[4]

In the past few years, there have been a number of positive reactions against FGC. Firstly, the Adam Fund for Humanitarian Development created the ‘Girls of the Nile’ campaign, which published Al-Azhar fatwas to discourage FGC. Secondly, Stop FGM Middle East held a conference in Turkey that sought to target FGC in the Middle East region, including Egypt, who was given the main role to lead the campaigns. Thirdly, Plan UK went to Egypt on a knowledge trip to gain information about FGC and child marriage. However, before that, initiatives had not occurred since 2008 due to the Arab Spring revolutions. This held back significant progress and enabled FGC to proliferate in the country.

Prior to 2008 revolution, there were many initiatives in support of ending FGC, such as the implementation of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme at community, district and national level, and the launch of the Kamla Campaign where 20 civil society groups, volunteers and families worked to abandon FGC through seminars. In June 2007, the death of a 12-year-old girl as a result of FGC was momentous in spurring women’s and children’s rights groups into action, and pushing for further action against those who practise FGC. [5]

In 2006, Plan Egypt and the Egyptian government worked together to create the Reduction of FGM Project, which supported over 7,000 girls. In 2003, the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood, the UN Development Programme, the Donor Assistance Group, Plan International and the Egyptian Task Force Against FGM worked in six Upper Egyptian governates to implement the FGM-Free Village Campaign.

Suzanne Mubarak, former President Hosni Mubarak’s wife, played a prominent role in the campaign to end FGC in Egypt. She spoke publically against FGC and was central in getting Muslim and Christian religious leaders to prohibit the practice.[6] As a result, the fatwa office in Cairo, the office of the Grand Mufti of Egypt, established a FGC hotline, with reports suggesting that many women changed their attitude on FGC as a result of the hotline information.[7] However, civil society groups have criticised Mubarak’s efforts arguing that they were intended to encourage international funds for the government’s interest.

Since the revolution, political instability has resulted in a general shrinking of UN and NGO funds and efforts in Egypt.[8] However, a number of organisations and the authorities are still working to address the issue of FGC through various initiatives. A general shift in attitudes is apparent.[9] Schoolchildren are attending classes on the dangers of FGC and are more open to discussing the practice with their parents. In the religious sphere, more and more imams have been speaking out against FGC. The medical profession is also undergoing gradual change; the Ministry of Health and the UNFPA are retraining 1,000 doctors a year about the health risks of FGC.

On-going challenges:

Even though prevalence rates have decreased in the past few years (from 91% in 2008 to 87% in 2015, according to EHIS 2015) and support for the practice has slightly declined among ever-married women and girls, there is a high number of challenges and obstacles impeding combat against FGC in Egypt. At the same time, around half of people in Egypt still support the continuation of FGC and believe it is a religious requirement.[10]

The post-revolution environment has been hostile towards FGC, with fewer voices offering an alternative view. Between 2011 and 2013, the Muslim Brotherhood presented a potential obstacle to the anti-FGC campaign, opposing a complete ban on the practice, while the then-president, Mohamed Morsi, refused to condemn the practice.[11] The Muslim Brotherhood has also been accused of launching a pro-FGC campaign, sending a large medical convoy into villages to perform the procedure and advocate for the practice.[12] At the same time, controversial statements on FGC have been made by MPs and have prompted criticism and condemnation from women’s rights organisations and activists.[13]

Medicalisation of FGC presents another obstacle for abandonment initiatives. In the past, the procedure was typically performed by traditional birth attendants and ‘health barbers’. However, over the years and despite a ministerial decree prohibiting medical personnel from performing the practice, FGC has become increasingly medicalised, with 78% of procedures performed by medical professionals.[14] This phenomenon threatens to perpetuate the practice by making it seem medically sound while failing to acknowledge it as a human rights violation.[15] Doctors also exacerbate the problem, seeing FGC as a useful source of extra income or still believing it is a necessary procedure, since the dangers of the practice were only recently introduced to the curriculum in Egyptian medical schools.[16]

At the same time, FGC remains a deeply-rooted social norm in Egypt which explains why there is so much social pressure for people to conform to the society’s expectations; its proponents believe it stops women from becoming adulterous in later life.[17] Some Muslims also consider it a religious requirement, while Christians practise it for cultural reasons. Campaigners against FGC face barriers in their attempt to advocate against the practice, especially in poorer communities where FGC is still seen by many as a necessary practice.[18]

Even though there has been anti-FGC legislation since 2008, according to international and local observers, the government has not effectively enforced the law nor has it made adequate budget allocations to raise awareness.[19] According to Dr Randa Fakhr El Din of the Cairo Coalition Against FGM, because of the ban, the number of girls dying has increased as parents are reluctant to take them to the hospitals in case they get reported and imprisoned.[20] Hopes that the law may have some effect were renewed in January 2015, when Raslan Fadl, doctor, went on trial and was sentenced to two years imprisonment for the death of a 13-year-old girl after undergoing FGC. However, in December 2015 there was information that he was still working in a public hospital, after having served only a small part of his sentence.[21] In 2016, the death of a 17-year-old girl under general anaesthetic in a private hospital brought the issue of FGC and the efficiency of the law to the fore again. According to lawyers and rights groups, the proposed harsher sentences that followed the incident are less likely to help in prosecuting more medical personnel, or in deterring parents from cutting their daughters.[22] Instead, the stricter measures will probably lead more often to FGC being performed “underground”.[23]

 


[1] Amel Fahmy, ‘Will tougher sentences prevent female genital mutilation in Egypt?’ (Open Democracy, 18 August 2016) https://www.opendemocracy.net/openglobalrights/amel-fahmy/will-tougher-sentences-prevent-female-genital-mutilation-in-egypt> accessed 11 November 2016

[2] ibid

[3]‘MP apologises for controversial comments on FMG issue’ Daily News Egypt (19 July 2016)< http://www.dailynewsegypt.com/2016/07/19/mp-apologises-controversial-comments-fmg-issue/> accessed 11 November 2016

[4] ‘Local Egyptian heroine aims to end “huge” suffering caused by FGM’ (UNFPA, 18 July 2016) <http://www.unfpa.org/news/local-egyptian-heroine-aims-end-%E2%80%9Chuge%E2%80%9D-suffering-caused-fgm> accessed 11 November 2016; Patrick Kingsley, ‘In Egypt, social pressure means FGM is still the norm’ The Guardian (London, 6 February 2015) < https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/06/female-genital-mutilation-egypt> accessed 11 November 2016

[5] Joseph Mayton, 'EGYPT: Egypt Girl Dies In Circumcision Attempt, Doctor To Face Trial’ (FGM Network, 08 September 2010) <http://www.fgmnetwork.org/gonews.php?subaction=showfull&id=1283980071&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&> accessed 11 November 2016

[6] Betwa Sharma, ‘For Young Women, a Horrifying Consequence of Mubarak’s Overthrow’ (New Republic, 29 October 2011)<https://newrepublic.com/article/96555/egypt-genital-mutilation-fgm-muslim-brotherhood> accessed 11 November 2011

[7] ibid

[8] ibid

[9] Kingsley (n 4)

[10] ‘Egypt: Statistical profile on female genital mutilation/cutting’ (Unicef) <http://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/country_profiles/Egypt/FGMC_EGY.pdf> accessed 9 November 2016

[11] Sharma (n 6); Kingsley (n 4)

[12]Yasmin Helal, ‘Are fears of legalization of female genital mutilation in Egypt real?’ (Al Arabiya News, 12 July 2012) <http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/07/12/225982.html> accessed 11 November 2016

[13] Daily News Egypt (n 3)

[14] Unicef (n 10); ‘Female genital mutilation: issues and impact’ (Unicef) <http://www.unicef.org/egypt/protection_148.html> accessed 11 November 2016

[15]Mary Carson and Claire Daly, ‘The sickening trend of medicalised FGM’ The Guardian (London, 16 June 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/jun/16/the-sickening-trend-of-medicalised-fgm> accessed 11 November 2016

[16] Kingsley (n 4)

[17] ibid

[18] ibid

[19] Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, EGYPT 2015 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT (Washington: U.S. Department of State 2015)<http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253133.pdf> accessed 9 November 2016

[20]‘Female genital mutilation rife in Egypt despite ban’ (BBC News, 15 February 2012) <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/9696353.stm> accessed 11 November 2016

[21] Ruth Michaelson, ‘First doctor convicted of FGM death in Egypt only spent three months in jail’ The Guardian (London, 2 August 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/aug/02/egyptian-doctor-convicted-of-fgm-death-serves-three-months-in-jailaccessed> accessed 11 November 2016

[22] Fahmy (n 1); Michaelson (n 21)

[23] ibid

Prevalence by geographical department:

map-final

Source: Unicef 2016

Practising ethnic groups:[1]

Muslims, Coptic Christians

Prevailing attitudes towards FGC:

table-2

 


[1] Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues, Egypt: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC) (Washington :U.S. Department of State 2001)

Reference list:

AFP, ‘Egypt brings in tougher penalties against female genital mutilation’ (Daily Mail, 4 December 2016) <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-3998866/Egypt-brings-tougher-penalties-against-female-genital-mutilation.html> accessed 5 December 2016

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, EGYPT 2015 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT (Washington: U.S. Department of State 2015)

<http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253133.pdf> accessed 9 November 2016

Carson M and Daly C, ‘The sickening trend of medicalised FGM’ The Guardian (London, 16 June 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/jun/16/the-sickening-trend-of-medicalised-fgm> accessed 11 November 2016

‘Egypt’ (The World Factbook, CIA) <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html> accessed 8 November 2016

‘Egypt: Statistical profile on female genital mutilation/cutting’ (Unicef) <http://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/country_profiles/Egypt/FGMC_EGY.pdf> accessed 9 November 2016

‘Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Data and Trends Update 2014’ (PRB)<http://www.prb.org/pdf14/fgm-wallchart2014.pdf> accessed 8 November 2016

‘Female genital mutilation: issues and impact’ (Unicef) <http://www.unicef.org/egypt/protection_148.html> accessed 11 November 2016

‘Female genital mutilation rife in Egypt despite ban’ (BBC News, 15 February 2012) <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/9696353.stm> accessed 11 November 2016

Fahmy A, ‘Will tougher sentences prevent female genital mutilation in Egypt?’ (Open Democracy, 18 August 2016) <https://www.opendemocracy.net/openglobalrights/amel-fahmy/will-tougher-sentences-prevent-female-genital-mutilation-in-egypt> accessed 11 November 2016

Helal J, ‘Are fears of legalization of female genital mutilation in Egypt real?’ (Al Arabiya News, 12 July 2012) <http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/07/12/225982.html> accessed 11 November 2016

Kingsley P, ‘In Egypt, social pressure means FGM is still the norm’ The Guardian (London, 6 February 2015) <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/06/female-genital-mutilation-egypt> accessed 11 November 2016

Kingsley P, ‘Egypt launches first prosecution for female genital mutilation after girl dies’ The Guardian (London, 14 March 2014) <http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/mar/14/egyptian-doctor-first-prosecution-fgm-female-genital-mutilation >access 11 November 2016

‘Local Egyptian heroine aims to end “huge” suffering caused by FGM’ (UNFPA, 18 July 2016) <http://www.unfpa.org/news/local-egyptian-heroine-aims-end-%E2%80%9Chuge%E2%80%9D-suffering-caused-fgm> accessed 11 November 2016

Mayton J, 'EGYPT: Egypt Girl Dies In Circumcision Attempt, Doctor To Face Trial’ (FGM Network, 08 September 2010)<http://www.fgmnetwork.org/gonews.php?subaction=showfull&id=1283980071&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&> accessed 11 November 2016

Michaelson R, ‘Egypt's tougher penalties for FGM will have little impact, say rights groups’ The Guardian (London, 1 September 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/sep/01/egypts-tougher-penalties-for-fgm-will-have-little-impact-say-rights-groups> accessed 11 November 2016

Michaelson R, ‘First doctor convicted of FGM death in Egypt only spent three months in jail’ The Guardian (London, 2 August 2016) <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/aug/02/egyptian-doctor-convicted-of-fgm-death-serves-three-months-in-jailaccessed> accessed 11 November 2016

Ministry of Health and Population and El-Zanaty and Associates and ICF International, Egypt Health Issues Survey 2015 (Cairo, Egypt and Rockville, Maryland, USA: Ministry of Health and Population and ICF International 2015) <https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR313/FR313.pdf >accessed 9 November 2016

‘MP apologises for controversial comments on FMG issue’ Daily News Egypt (19 July 2016) < http://www.dailynewsegypt.com/2016/07/19/mp-apologises-controversial-comments-fmg-issue/> accessed 11 November 2016

Office of the Senior Coordinator for International Women's Issues, Egypt: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC) (Washington: U.S. Department of State 2001) <https://2001-2009.state.gov/g/wi/rls/rep/crfgm/10096.htm> accessed 9 November 2016

Sharma B, ‘For Young Women, a Horrifying Consequence of Mubarak’s Overthrow’ (New Republic, 29 October 2011)<https://newrepublic.com/article/96555/egypt-genital-mutilation-fgm-muslim-brotherhood> accessed 11 November 2016

‘What are the origins and reasons for FGM?’ (28 Too Many) <http://28toomany.org/blog/2013/feb/19/what-are-the-origins-and-reasons-for-fgm-blog-by-2/> accessed 11 November 2016

 

 

In the news:

University World News - Educating medical students on FGC

CNN - Medicalisation of FGC is on the rise in Egypt

Daily Mail - New, stricter anti-FGC law comes into force

Egyptian Streets - Egypt’s parliament approved in late August amendments to the law against FGC that imposes harsher penalties on the practice.

Daily News Egypt - Seven non-governmental organisations working in gender rights welcomed the legal amendments made to anti-FGC Law, but also expressed their scepticism of the enforcement mechanisms

Egyptian Street - Egyptian MP says women must accept FGC due to country's 'sexually weak men'

The Guardian - Suad Abu-Dayyeh, from Equality Now has stated that the new law should help efforts to end FGC, “but it may not make a major difference unless police and judges follow through and actually make arrests of perpetrators”

Ahram Online - Egypt's parliament have passed a bill designating FGC a felony and imposing stricter penalties for those performing the procedure and anyone escorting individuals to have FGC

Health Canal - Study shows among 410 women, a third are hesitant to practice FGC on their daughters, however, when seeking advice of health professionals mothers are not being discouraged by their doctors

Ahram Online - Gynaecologist, Hussein Gohar, calls for long term education campaign alongside legal action against perpetrators in order to end FGC

The Media Line - The failure of Egyptian police to find those responsible for the death of a 17-year-old girl highlights the lack of enforcement for the FGC ban

Egyptian Streets - Local rights groups and the ministry of health have criticised the legal provision against FGC, proposing several amendments

The Guardian - First doctor convicted after death caused by FGC procedure, only spent three months in jail

Egypt Independent - Egyptian doctor serves only three months in jail for performing FGC on 14 year old girl who later died

Daily News -MP Ahmed Al-Tahawy apologises for comments defending FGC

UNFPA - Hoda Hamed advocates abandonment of FGC in her community

EM TV Online - Woman uses invite-only Facebook group 'Confessions of a Married Woman' to discuss domestic violence, GBV, and FGC

Daily News Egypt - Ministry of Health and Population to propose stricter penalties for doctors and families practicing FGC

Daily News Egypt - EIPR suggests widening legal means to activate anti-FGC laws

The Hippocratic Post - FGC: End it, don't medicalise it

Daily News Egypt - Private hospital closed down after girl dies from FGC procedure

The Guardian - A young girl dies during FGC procedure

Evening Standard - Egyptian doctor campaigns to end FGC, providing training for fellow doctors to help reform attitudes to the practice

Evening Standard - Young girls speak out about ending FGC in Egypt

New Europe - Time to stop FGC in Egypt

Egyptian Independent - Ending the societal discrimination of unmarried women in Egypt

Gulf News - Egyptians finally call for end of FGC after doctor loses medical license

Huffington Post - The key to ending FGC is educating people about girls, marriageability, and virginity as well as FGC

Egypt Independent - Campaign to eradicate FGC in Egypt launched by Doctors Against FGM

Cyprus Mail - Empowering women crucial to ending FGC

Gulf News - Egypt launches a nationwide five year plan to reduce FGC prevalence

The Cairo Post – Mutilation for sale: FGM offices discovered in Cairo

DailyNewsEgypt – 61% of girls between 15-17 underwent FGM: Survey

Care2 – Will FGM end in Egypt in 15 years?

Global Post – ‘I hate it. It hurts’ — Egyptian women talk about sex after FGC

Shoutout UK – Despite FGM/C being illegal in Egypt since 2008, young girls fall victim to the practice, especially over the long summer holidays

UNPD –  EU-funded UNDP FGM Abandonment and Empowerment of Families Joint Programme is helping women understand life without FGC, but young humanitarian workers receive a negative reception from practicing elders in Egypt

Huffington Post – The severity of FGC is still not being realised in Egypt

CNN - Young Egyptian girls fear the summer holidays: the ‘cutting’ season

The Guardian - Plans to reduce FGC by 10-15% over next 5 years by mobilizing doctors and judges but activists are doubtful of success

International Business Times - Girls at higher risk of FGC during summer holidays

Arham Online - National efforts to end FGC are paying off as statistics fall, particularly in Aswan where communities show a united front in advocating against the practice

Albawaba - Egypt Democratic Health Survey of 2014 shows decrease in prevalence rates amongst girls aged 15-17 years old, suggesting national efforts to raise awareness and bring an end to the practice are reaping promising results

Cairo Post - Egyptian National Population Council implements project to help abandon the practice of FGM within 5 years

Egyptian Streets - Minister of Health reveals 92% of married women have undergone FGC

Cairo Post- Ministry of Health reports 76% of FGC cases medicalised

Wall Street OTC - Doctor sentenced to 3 years in jail for performing FGC

Egyptian Streets- UNFPA-commissioned comedy performances open dialogue on FGC

Ahram Online - Egyptian court to hear appeal against acquittal verdict in Egypt's first FGC case

The Guardian - Doctor acquitted in Egypt's first trial over FGC

Voice of America - Egypt conducts its first ever FGC trial

Daily News: Egypt - 'As if I brought it on myself'

Ahram Online - Theatre takes the anti-FGC

The Cairo Post  - FGC on the rise in rural areas: WDA

Daily News Egypt - Victims of FGC make harmful traditional practice a crime

The Independent - Egypt faces its first FGC trial

Daily Mail - Doctor and father on trial after 13-year-old Egyptian girl dies during FGC procedure

The New York Times - Egypt's sexual violence problem

The Times - Egyptian doctor and father on trial after girl dies in botched FGC procedure

All Africa - FGC trial postponed

The Guardian - Egyptian doctor to stand trial for FGC in landmark case

BBC News - FGC persists despite deadly risks

World News - Stop mutilating little girls

Aljazeera America - Egyptian doctor to face nation's first trial over female genital cutting

Devex - Egypt's battle against FGC: What have we learned?

The Guardian - Egypt launches first prosecution for FGC after girl dies

Middle East Online - Egypt doctor faces trial for fatal FGC

The Huffington Post - Anti-FGC campaigners make progress in Egypt

FIGO - Egyptian women's campaigner receives RFK Human Rights Award

Daily News Egypt - Children's rights coalition denounces state stance on FGC

Egypt Independent - Mufti's deputy reiterates: female circumcision prohibited by religion

FIGO - FGC 'forbidden in Islam,' Dar-Al-Ifta official says

Egypt Independent - NGOs prepare campaign against FGC

Evening Standard - Unkindest cut: 13-year-old's death shines spotlight on rise of FGC in Egypt

FIGO - Egyptian Islamists 'could undermine years of work' on FGC

Quantara.de - The ongoing battle for the female body

Ahram Online - Though the banned practice of female genital mutilation has nothing to do with Islam, Egyptian Islamists look determined to re-legitimise it.

Deutsche Welle – It happens at night: genital mutilation in Egypt

Daily News Egypt -The battle against female genital cutting

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