Population: 11.4 million
Estimated prevalence among women aged 15-49:
44.2% & 1,170,113 women aged 15+ cut
|Data Source||MICS 2010|
|15 – 49 (%)||44.2|
|15 - 19 (%)||41.0|
|45 - 49 (%)||47.6|
|Lowest Region (%)||2.3|
|Highest Region (%)||95.7|
|Nicked, no flesh removed (%)||9.5|
|Flesh removed (%)||80.3|
|Sewn closed (%)||7.2|
|Traditionally performed (%)||92.8|
|Medically performed (%)||5.1|
The most widely practiced form across Chad is Type II. Type III is practiced in the eastern part of the country in areas bordering Sudan. FGC crosses ethnic and religious lines as it is practiced by Christians, Muslims and Animists in roughly equal proportions.
A law against FGC was adopted in Chad in 2003. It condemns any form of violence against women, deeming FGC to be a form of violence.
History of FGC in Chad:
The media has played a major role in informing the public about this issue. As a result, public awareness is growing. A film produced by Zara Mahamat Yacoub in July 1997, documented FGC and had a profound effect on the population who viewed this production on prime-time television. Though the broadcast raised an outcry from religious leaders, it brought the subject into the public domain and made it a subject of debate.
ASTBEF (Chadian Association for Family Well-Being) is the leading NGO in Chad that actively seeks to combat FGC. ASTBEF was invited to the 1999 Council of Ministers meeting to explain the negative effects of this practice to the President, Prime Minister and Cabinet. This played a part in the eventual outlawing of FGC in 2002. Several other NGOs have organized conferences, debates and education programs on the issue.
Current efforts to abandon FGC:
Chad Red Cross are educating and mobilising tribal chiefs about the dangers and negative consequences of FGC, who are subsequently sharing this information with their local communities. This work is important because the high status and respect of the tribal chiefs means that they have great powers of persuasion and influence.
The UNHCR (United Nations Refugee Agency) in Chad has been identifying pregnant women in refugee camps who have had their genitalia cut in order to better prepare for potential complications. The exercise is an element of wider efforts in the camps to tackle the health fallout of FGC.
In the refugee camps more work needs to be done to prevent FGC from initially occurring, as many girls are still being cut in the camps. In the whole country, prevalence rates have not significantly decreased (47% between 45-49 years of age, 41% between ages 15-19).
Increasing medicalisation of the practice obscures the problems related to FGC and prevents the development of effective and long-term solutions for the abandonment of the practice.
70% of the girls in Chad were cut before their ninth birthday, 12% before the age of 5. 8 out of 10 girls are cut between the ages of five and fourteen.
Opposition to the practice is particularly high among educated women and among those belonging to the richest quintile. 65% and 51% of them believe the practice should end, compared to 28% of women with no education, with 11% of those belonging to the poorest quintile.
Major ethnic groups:
Sara (in south)
More than 120 different regional languages and dialects